Actions or patterns of behavior which the stutterer uses in trying to avoid
difficulty. These include abnormal variations employed such as postponements
, word substitutions
or nonvocalized pauses, or the complete refusal to speak. Such maneuvers usually tend to increase any fear
of difficulty the stutterer may have. Unlike the escape behaviors
that occur during the moment of stuttering itself in an attempt to permit release
, avoidance behaviors
occur prior to the moment of stuttering in an attempt to totally prevent its occurrence.