The term "cybernetic" [Greek kybernetes, pilot, steersman] was coined by the mathematician Norbert Wiener in 1948 to encompass "the entire field of control and communication theory
, whether in the machine or in the animal" (p.11). Cybernetics
is concerned with scientific investigation of systemic processes of a highly varied nature, including such phenomena as regulation, information
processing, information storage, adaptation, self-organization
, self-reproduction, and strategic behavior. Within the general cybernetic approach, the following theoretical fields have developed: systems theory
(system), communication theory
, game theory
, and decision theory.